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Immunoglobulin Therapy or Antibiotics, Which is More Effective in Preventing Infections for Blood Cancer Patients?
Posted: May 22, 2024
Immunoglobulin Therapy or Antibiotics, Which is More Effective in Preventing Infections for Blood Cancer Patients? image

Blood cancer patients may have an increased risk of infections due to low antibody levels. A study involving hospitals in Australia and New Zealand evaluated the efficacy of immunoglobulin replacement therapy compared to preventative antibiotics in these patients, revealing key insights into infection prevention strategies.

Understanding Secondary Hypogammaglobulinemia in Blood Cancer 

Blood cancer patients may develop secondary hypogammaglobulinemia. This condition occurs when the production of antibodies is disrupted, leaving the body vulnerable to infections. The reason for this vulnerability lies in the very nature of some hematological malignancies. These cancers infiltrate the bone marrow, the factory responsible for B cell production, restricting their ability to create enough antibodies. Additionally, some cancer treatments themselves can suppress B cell function, further contributing to low immunoglobulin levels. As a result, patients with hematological malignancies face a double peril: their cancer and an increased risk of infections due to acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. 

Doctors typically use immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy or preventative antibiotics to prevent infections, but until recently, the effectiveness of these had yet to be directly compared.

Comparing Treatments: Immunoglobulins Vs. Antibiotics 

Professor Zoe McQuilten, a consultant hematologist at Monash Health in Australia, conducted a study with her colleagues across seven hospitals in Australia and New Zealand seeking to fill this gap. The study involved blood cancer patients with a history of severe or recurrent infections or very low levels of immunoglobulin G, less than 4 g/L. 

These participants were randomly assigned to receive either immunoglobulin replacement therapy every four weeks intravenously or daily preventative antibiotics trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or doxycycline for 12 months. 

After 12 months, 76% of the patients who received immunoglobulin therapy were still alive, and 71% of the patients in the antibiotic group were still alive. The time until the first major infection occurred was similar between the groups, with the immunoglobulin group experiencing their first major infection at an average of 11.1 months versus 9.7 months for the antibiotic group. Patients in both groups reported having a similar quality of life during treatment. 

Antibiotic & Immunoglobulin Therapy Have Similar Efficacy in Infection Prevention

This study is pioneering in its direct comparison of these two common preventive treatments. Previous studies had either compared immunoglobulin replacement with a placebo, or not specified the use of preventative antibiotics. Interestingly, earlier trials suggested that immunoglobulin replacement could reduce the risk of clinically documented infections but not mortality. The findings of this current trial indicate that both antibiotics and immunoglobulin replacement therapy might be equally viable in preventing infections under the conditions tested. 

This trial represents a significant step in understanding the comparative effectiveness of these treatments, setting the stage for more comprehensive evaluations that could help optimize infection prevention strategies for blood cancer patients. 

Source

The author Megan Heaps

about the author
Megan Heaps

Megan joined HealthTree in 2022. As a writer and the daughter of a blood cancer patient, she is dedicated to helping patients and their caregivers understand the various aspects of their disease. This understanding enables them to better advocate for themselves and improve their treatment outcomes. In her spare time, she enjoys spending time with her family, sewing, and cooking.

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