Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, bone marrow tests, and imaging tests. These tests help to confirm the presence of high levels of eosinophils in the body and to rule out other conditions that could cause similar symptoms.
- Complete Blood Count (CBC): This test measures the number of different types of cells in the blood, including eosinophils. A high number of eosinophils can indicate HES.
- Eosinophil Count: This test specifically measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. A count of 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood or higher on two separate occasions is typically required for a diagnosis of HES.
- Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Test: This test measures the level of IgE, a type of antibody, in the blood. High levels of IgE can occur in HES and other conditions associated with allergies and inflammation.
Bone Marrow Tests:
- Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy: These tests involve taking a small sample of bone marrow to examine under a microscope. In HES, the bone marrow may show an increased number of eosinophils.
- Cytogenetic Analysis: This test looks at the chromosomes in the cells from the bone marrow. Certain changes in the chromosomes can indicate HES.
- Chest X-ray: This test can show abnormalities in the lungs that may be caused by HES.
- Echocardiogram: This test uses sound waves to create images of the heart. It can show damage to the heart muscle and valves that can occur in HES.
- CT Scan or MRI: These tests can show damage to other organs, such as the liver or spleen, that can occur in HES.
A Summary of Diagnosing Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
Diagnosing hypereosinophilic syndrome involves a combination of blood tests, bone marrow tests, and imaging tests. The blood tests are used to confirm the presence of high levels of eosinophils, while the bone marrow tests can provide further evidence of HES and help rule out other conditions. Imaging tests can reveal damage to organs that can occur as a result of HES. The diagnosis of HES is typically confirmed when other causes of eosinophilia have been ruled out and the patient has signs and symptoms of organ damage.